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history-library.com -> Добавить материалы на сайт -> Средние века -> Макаров Н.А. -> "Русь в 13 веке: Древности темного времени" -> 301

Русь в 13 веке: Древности темного времени - Макаров Н.А.

Макаров Н.А. Русь в 13 веке: Древности темного времени — М.: Наука, 2003. — 406 c.
ISBN 5-02-008847-1
Скачать (прямая ссылка): drevnostitemnogovremeni2003.djvu
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Development of relations between Novgorod and Finno-Ugrian tribes had resulted in formation of specific Slavic -Finnish cultural synthesis and emergence of characteristic shapes of ornaments in the territories in question. It was the 13th c. that displayed formation and flourish of Baltic-Finnish tribes included into Novgorodan lands. The interrelations of Novgorod and the discussed tribes are mirrored by the Novgorodan archaeological material; they are responsible for quantitative rise noted in the group of ornaments of Finno-Ugrian origin discovered in the town’s cultural deposits.

Investigations of the ornaments in question originating from Novgorod have shown that they were attributed to all Finno-Ugrian tribes united by Novgorodan power in the 12th-14th cc. Among the ornaments found in Novgorod those typical of the Karela and Vod’ tribes are present, as well as the items from the Ladoga region and north-eastern territories. Among them the author should mention temporal rings, mainly with several beads on the wire, horse-shoeshaped and oval Karelian fibulae, cloth-pins, bracelets, fin-ger-rings, and spiral beads. Totally the artefacts of Finno-Ugrian origin discovered in 13th-century cultural deposit number ca. 200 pieces. Their systematic analysis has evidenced that some of them were worn as a part of traditional Novgorodan costume. This relatively numerous group comprises horse-shoe-shaped fibulae, pins, and hollow jingling pendant-amulets of horse shape.

Horse-shoe-like fibulae were used in Novgorod as cloth fastenings beginning from the second half of the 10th c. In the 13th c. this custom still existed, though cloth-pins were more numerous, among them the types with

stylised or three-fan heads. Apparently, the pins should be concerned as more popular component of Novgorodan costume.

In the 13th c. hollow horse-shaped jingling pendants came into being in Novgorod, their mane was made in filigree technology. The tradition of wearing zoomorphic amulets as a part of town’s costume had been evidently formed in the course of cultural interrelations with the Finno-Ugrian tribes that inhabited Novgorodan lands.

In the 13th c. the greatest diversity of Finno-Ugrian ornaments is accounted for within the borders of boyars’ town plots, their owners being involved into administrative relations with Finno-Ugrian population who paid tribute to Novgorod. The major part of the ornaments under discussion were widely spread among the Finno-Ugrian antiquities and do not provide any opportunity for establishing cultural connections with certain regions. Nevertheless, the sets of Finno-Ugrian adornments can indirectly confirm the relations of the town plot inhabitants. If some other sources (for example, birch-bark charters) are discovered, the relations may be characterised in more detailed way.

Having carried out comparative studies of sets of Finno-Ugrian ornaments yielded by archaeologically studied town plots of the Nerevsky and Lyudin town districts, the author has shown that the discussed artefacts never formed a prevailing group. Consequently, it is impossible to suppose that plots or their clusters inhabited by the Finno-Ugrians could exist in Novgorod. Still, they could live in those that belonged to some large boyar clans, and this part of population was rather stable locally and chronologically.

E.K. Kadieva

Pottery from a town plot of the late 12th—13th cc. in Vladimir

In the paper a detailed description of the pottery association from a town plot dated back to the late 12th—13th cc. in Vladimir is presented. The assemblage was investigated by Yu.E. Zhamov in 1993-1998. The analytical system was applied worked out for studies of wheel-made pottery of the central regions of the Rostov-Suzdal land. Pottery collection from the assemblage numbers around 92 thousand fragments and 169 whole shapes; 98,5% of the material are attested to ancient Russian wheel-made pottery of the pre-Mongol period, 1,5% - to early red-clay pottery, that is to the later group of ancient Russian wheel-made pottery. The following categories of vessels were singled out and characterised: pots, saucers, bowls, bowl-shaped vessels, mugs, tumblers, kubysh-ka-type vessels, amphorae of korchaga-type, lamps, and lids.

Three basic pottery associations (BPA) have been singled out: BPA 1 and 2 corresponding to the pre-Mongol period of the building, and BPA 3 related to the post-Mongol stage in the existence of the assemblage. The associations have been cross-compared according to several features, namely:

1. Vessels’ dimensions. It was established that BPA 2 displayed the greatest variety of vessels’ dimensions

(1214(27)-1238), since in this BPA only miniature vessels were present.

2. Pottery repertoire. This feature was best expressed also by BPA 2. Eight categories were recorded: pots, saucers, bowls, bowl-shaped vessels, tumblers, mugs, kubyshka-type vessels, amphorae of korchaga-type.
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