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2. Distribution of glass bracelets in cultural deposits is unusual, as far as early dendrochronological dates are concerned. The bracelets’ highest concentration is observed in the layers just above natural soil level, which suggests the first half of the 13th с.
3. In the layers yielding early dendrodates in Tver’ the share of vessels with “axe-shaped” rims is exceptionally low, while this very class of pottery marks the associations earlier than the turn of the 12th and 13th cc.
4. The earliest dendrochronologically dated layers are associated not to the central part of the Tver’ kremlin, but to a narrow land stripe along the Volga right bank. The earliest monasteries situated in the central portion of the town limited strongly the area covered by the medieval town.
5. According to Voskresenskaya chronicle, prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich founded the town of Tver’ on the Volga after the Mongol invasion in the place uninhabited before. He appointed his son Yaroslav as a prince there, and this was the beginning of Great principality of Tver’, the episode being indirectly confirmed by other chronicles.
6. In developed medieval towns specific terms emerged to indicate their inhabitants. Written sources started calling the Tver’ townsfolk “tverichi” since 1245 only.
7. One of the most reliable features of urban centre is the presence of central temple consecrated to a corresponding patron. The situation in Tver’ was out of the rule. Until 1285-the year when stone Saviour cathedral was constructed, this role was played by timber church of Sts. Cosmas and Damian, which was atypical of any urban central cathedral.
Thus, one may suppose that instantly after 1238 in the Tver’ river system a specific demographic situation emerged; it was characterised by concentration of refugees from the whole north-eastern Rus’. Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich availed himself of the opportunity to found the new town of Tver’.
The investigations carried out by O.M. Oleinikov demonstrated that construction of the rampart around the Tver’ kremlin got started in the first half-mid 13th c. Wide-scale fortification activities by prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich affected also the area of Tver’ market comprised within the town’s citadel.
Tver’ is mentioned by some chronicles among the urban centres devastated by the Mongols. However, archaeological excavations have failed to clear up any remains of the 1238 crash so far.
The account of the First Novgorodan Chronicle on the heroic resistance offered by Torzhok inhabitants is well known. The Mongols bombarded the fortress of Novy Torg for two weeks by catapults. The townsmen under commandment of governor (posadnik) Ivanko and the boyars defended the town by themselves; having received no help from Novgorod the town was sacked on March 5, 1238. The citizens were massacred.
Archaeological investigations at Nizhnee Gorodishche in Torzhok clearly show catastrophic picture of two-week-long resistance. The conflagration layer is up to 30-50 cm thick, human bones and burnt remains of icons were discovered in it. Strong log constructions of fortification wall built in 1164—1187 were after 1238 replaced by paling (!), new log fortification wall was erected only in 1288, in the same year timber street pavement was resumed, for the first time after 1218.
The open suburb disposed on the other bank of the Tvertsa river before 1238 was inhabited by wealthy merchants, but in the course of the siege it was burnt and turned to be extremely dangerous area. Habitation here was interrupted for 250 years and actively resumed as late as the 15th c.
Generally, Torzhok and Tver’ represent two greatly differing patterns of historical destiny of 13th-century urban centres. Torzhok was an old developed town, after 1238 it faced its first deep crisis, both economic and political. Tver’ was a new town amid the process of formation, in 1285 it had got central stone cathedral marked with corresponding
consecration. The process of urbanisation here was evident- Volga-Tvertsa-T’maka river system. The 13th century for
ly hampered by several rival settlements, possibly of pre- Tver’ had turned to be the age of rapid development and
urban character, situated in the centre of the growth despite the Mongol invasion.
Moscow and the Mongol invasion: The nature of cultural deposit in 13th century Kremlin
The 13th century was a specific epoch in the Moscow history. In the first third of the 13th c. Moscow was a minor town on the frontier of Vladimir land, then in the 70-s -80-s of the 13th c. it turned into the centre of an independent principality. That period of development was vaguely recorded in written sources, therefore archaeological data represent the basic ones for study of history and material culture of the early Moscow.