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danniks were equal to 1 miskal with a weight of 4.68 grams. Weights of
ten and hundred miskals have been found in a number of the Golden Horde
The first coins of the Golden Horde were struck in 1240-1250 in the town
of Bolgar. These coins feature the name of the Late Baghdad Caliph Nasir
Lid Din and, later, names of the Mongol rulers - Great Khan Mongke (1251-
1259) and Arig-Buga (1259-1264). In the course of the 13th century the
weights of the silver coins gradually decreased from 1.00-1.25 g to 0.40-
The coins became anonymous, they were minted in Bolgar and featured a
double-pointed prong - a kin tamga of the Batu clan - with an epithet
'chief or 'highest'.
Mongke-Timur Khan issued his own coins, the earliest dating to 677 AM
(1272-1273). This coin-striking reflected almost a complete separation of
ulus Jochi from Mongol rulers.
The maximum weight of Mongke-Timur's coins (both anonymous and bearing
his name) amounted approximately to two danniks, i. e. 1.45-1.60 g. From
1280 onwards lighter anonymous coins (1.3-1.4 g) were minted. Mongke-
Timur's successors did not place a Khan's name on the coins which
featured only a tamga of the Jochi clan.
Copper coins younger than those bearing the Mongke name are unknown in
the 13th century deposits in the Middle Volga region and such coins
probably were not minted after Mongke's reign.
* Translated by L. I. Smirnova (Holden).
*¦; -Is , .
The Monetary System of The Golden Horde
The second centre of the early Juchid coinage was the Crimea, where the
fiist coins were struck from 685 AM (1265-1266). Initially, the coin
weight was close to half a miskal (2.00-2.20 g), but it was reduced to
1.45 g by the end of the 13th century. These coins feature the names of
the towns of Salhat and Sakchi (on the Lower Danube). Copper coins
bearing Juchid tamga and no Khan's name were minted in the Crimea from
At the same time, silver coin-striking occurred in Sarai, the capital
town of the Golden Horde, and later in Khorezm, Uvek and Azak. Until the
first decade of the 14th centuiy, these towns issued only silver coins,
copper coins being either minted in small numbers only or not struck at
all. Bolgar, Bilar, Sarai and Khorezm also struck silver coins of a half
or a quarter of the standard weight, so called small change coins.
In the reign of Toqta Khan a reform to unify coinage was carried out and
in 710 AM (1310-1311) many new silver coins were minted in Sarai-al-
Mahrus. The old coins were probably withdrawn from circulation and
exchanged for the new ones with some benefit for the state treasury.
Local coin-striking was suppressed and during the reign of Janibek Khan
such towns as Bolgar and Azak, as well as the Crimea centres, ceased
minting their own coins. Instead, unified (in weight) silver coins were
issued which were struck in Sarai and later in Gulistan. Up until the
1370s the weight of these coins changed but little from 1.48 g to 1.54 g,
that being approximately equal to a third of a miskal or two danniks.
From 1360 to 1370 Azak, and possibly the nomadic court of the Horde in
the Lower Dnieper and the Azov steppe, resumed minting coins in
abundance. The standard weight of these coins was different from that of
Sarai coins, which implied the end of unified currency of the Golden
Horde. A new monetary crisis began and the shortage of silver coins
In 1379 and 1380 Toqtamysh-Khan carried out a monetary reform and
established a unified standard weight of silver coins. Once again a great
number of new coins were struck. However, the reform was fully
implemented only in the Lower Volga region, whereas in other areas the
new coins coexisted with the old ones and were exchanged at spontaneously
After a currency reform of Toqta in 1310 almost all towns minted copper
coins in the course of the 14th century.
In 802 AM (1398-1388) in the reign of Edigey, the third state monetary
reform was carried out. However, like the previous reforms this one did
not establish a unified currency. In the early 15th centuiy the weight of
coins struck in New Bolgar was different from that of the coins minted in
the southern cities of the Golden Horde. In the 15th centuiy the former
outweighed the latter by a factor 1.5 : 1.
In the course of the 15th centuiy new coin-striking centres emeiged -
Birdi-Bazar, Horde-Bazar and others. It is probable that those were
temporaiy nomadic courts. The weight of coins minted there corresponded
at times either to the northern or to the southern standards, which
depended on the movements of the nomads. In the Crimea coins were minted
in the old centres and the towns on the southern coast (Kaffa). From 1424
onwards there appeared new bilingual coins, so called Tatar-Genoese coins
which featured tamgas of the Crimea Khans of the Girey clan, the later
examples bearing the so-called Genoese portal, the symbol of the bank of