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history-library.com -> Добавить материалы на сайт -> История Казахстана -> Ахинжанов С.М. -> "Кыпчаки в истории средневекового Казахстана" -> 113

Кыпчаки в истории средневекового Казахстана - Ахинжанов С.М.

Ахинжанов С.М. Кыпчаки в истории средневекового Казахстана — А.: Гылым, 1995. — 296 c.
ISBN 5-628-01576-8
Скачать (прямая ссылка): kipchakivistoriisrednevekovogo1995.djvu
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Такова в основном история кыпчаков в предмонгольское время, которую можно выделить по письменным и археолого-этнографическим источникам. Более глубокое изучение этнополитической истории, географии страны, политического устройства и социальных отношений следует, очевидно, рассматривать через призму превалирующего источниковедческого аспекта, с появлением сугубо новых нарративных письменных данных.

This monography is aimed at elucidating chronologically the history of Kipchaks from the first third of the present millennium to the Mongol invasion. The scope of investigations covered a vast territory of Eurasia steppes from Manchuria to the Carpathians mountains, as the Kipchaks ethno-political association in its gradual evolutionary course influenced much upon historical events happened in Central Asia and Eastern Eurole; moreover a coalition of Kipchak tribes formed in 11 century in Kazakhstan properly motivated consolidation process in this region.

The Kipchak tribes for instance played a significant part in ethno-genesis of^the Kazakhs and deeply impressed on life of Khoruzm, Russia, Georgia, Hungary, Egypt and many other people and states. A grea" ter part of Kipchaks amalgamated with and played an important part in Kirghiz, Bashkir, Karakalpak, Uzbek and a number of Turkich speaking folks of southern Siberia, Altay and eastern Europe. Therefore actuality and significance of the subject is quite evident.

Until recent no generclized work on the history of Kipchaks existed. Available*sources give mainly fragments the Kipchaks’ history in association with of one or another certain nation, when they for instance formed a part, of a Kimak political union (B. Kumekov) or in connection with their place in the history of southern Siberia (D. Savinov). There are some papers discussing Kipchaks in terms of their ethnography (K. Shanijazov). A lot of separate and- often voluminous works on Kipchaks’ history regarding their former habitations in Mongolia are known .S. Kljashtorny).

The western branch of the Kipchak ethnopolitical entity named in historical annals «Polovtzi» gained a greater advantage as their history was recorded from written sources (primarily from Russian chronicles) and archaeological excavations (S. Pletneva, G. Fedorov— Davydov).

The Kipchaks’ history described in this monography was studied on the ground of archaeological materials and diverse information: written. lingual, folk-lore, etc.

The observation begins with a period of their first mentioning under the name of «Kipchak» in an old-Turkiek «runic» inscription on a stone stele made in honour of the Uighures Khan Bilga in Central Mongolia.

The inscription saving: «When Turks-Kipchaks ruled over us for fifty years...» testifies’to the fact that during their Central-Asiatic episode the Kipchaks were a strong enough ethno-political association

being in alliance with older Turks. According to S. Kljashtorny’s researches the Central Asiatic Kipchaks in 7th—8th centuries were known rather as «siet-jn-to» from Chinese or «sir» from old-Turkick inscriptions.

As is seen from our knowledge the earliest vestiges of Kipchaks remained in northwestern Mongolia and eastern Kazakstan.

Comprehensive usage of written and archaeological information allowed author to follow history of Kipcaks from the ethno-political pofnj: of'view, geographical seizing of their country, their political model and social relations.

Ethnical representation of medieval Kipchaks is also discussed in this work. Unlike persistent conception of the Kipchaks and Kimaks equivalence common in literature the author prove on the evidence of the Arab-Persian sources (Tamim ibn Bahr, Gardizi) that Kimaks were multilingual people who invaded ethnically Turkish speaking atmosphere of Kipchaks somewhere between 8th—9th centuries who settled first on the Irtish river and founded a powerful ethno-political association which absorbed along with another tribes the Kipchaks who lost their name and their independence for 150 years and this very fact created an idea of indentity of Kipchaks and Kimaks.

The Kimaks being outcomers from the northeastern multilingual surrounding possessed their own name Qaj translated from Mongolian dialects as «snake» or they were called «uran» in Turkick version.

So the Kimaks were people of snakes widely known from the history of Eurasian steppes in the dawn of 2nd millennium A. D.

They were a dynasty in a Kipchak-Polovttzi ethno-political association arranged over vast Eurasian Steppes from the r. Irtish to river Dnepr since the beginning of the 2nd millennium A. D. At that period exactly the terms Polovtzi Field and Dasht-i-Kipchak appeared. The last one mainly confined to recent Kazakhstan Steppes proves the political power in Steppes has fallen into hands of Kipchaks from the start of the 2nd millennium A. D. According to our knowledge at the end of 11 centurie a strong Kipchak political association headed by the Khans of the Ilbarej tribe was established in Kazakhstan Steppes. They were strong and threatening enough to confront with Khorezm, an ample and powerfull at; that time state in Middle Asia on the eve of the Mongolian invasion.
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